Conflito, discriminação e segregação na Palestina ocupada: etnocracia como síntese teórica possível

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5965/2175180313322021e0107

Resumo

O presente artigo opera uma revisão bibliográfica crítica acerca da discriminação e práticas de segregação na Palestina ocupada. São expostas as considerações de diferentes autores, divididas conforme entendem a ocupação, mas sobretudo a partir das forças históricas que constituem o Estado de Israel como etnocracia, quais sejam: o nacionalismo, o colonialismo e o capitalismo. Portanto, etnocracia é o conceito que faz convergir as diferentes interpretações aqui apresentadas, enfatizando-se suas aproximações. Ademais, a bibliografia é comparada a relatórios de direitos humanos da ONU e de ONGs, demonstrando sua complementaridade.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Fábio Bacila Sahd, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA)

Graduado em história na UFPR, especialista na Faculdades Bagozzi, mestre na UEM e doutor pela USP. Professor adjunto do colegiado de ciências humanas, do centro de Bacabal (UFMA). 

Referências

ABUNIMAH, Ali. One country: a bold proposal to end the Israeli-Palestinian impasse. New York: Metropolitan books; Henry Holt and Company, 2006.

ADALAH. Legal violations of Arab minorities in Israel: a report on Israel’s implementation of the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination. Adalah web site, [S.l..], Mar. 1998. Available in: http://www.adalah.org/eng/publications/violations.htm. Access in: 13 June 2011.

ALAM, Shahid. Israeli exceptionalism: the destabilizing logic of Zionism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

ANDERSON, Benedict. Comunidades imaginadas: reflexões sobre a origem e difusão do nacionalismo. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2008.

APPADURAI, Arjun. O medo ao pequeno número: ensaio sobre a geografia da raiva. São Paulo: Iluminuras, 2009.

ARAB ASSOCIATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. On the margins: annual review of human rights violations of the Arab Palestinian minority in Israel, 2006. Nazareth, 2006. Available in: http://www.arabhra.org/HraAdmin/UserImages/Files/YearlyReport2006FullVersionHighQualityEnglish.pdf. Access in: 13 Mar. 2020.

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL. Israel and the occupied territories: road to nowhere. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2006. Available in: https://www.amnesty.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Israel-and-the-Occupied-Territories.-The-road-to-Nowhere.pdf. Access in: 22 Apr. 2020.

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL. Enduring occupation: palestinians under siege in the west bank. London: Amnesty International, 2007. Available in : https://www.amnesty.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Report-Enduring-Occupation.pdf. Access in: 22 Apr. 2020.

BIMKOM. From public to national: national parks in East Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Bimkon, 2012. Available in: http://bimkom.org/eng/wpcontent/uploads/From-Public-toNational_English_FINAL2012_withMAPS_lowres1.pdf. Access in: 13 June 2015.

BIMKOM; B’TSELEM. The hidden agenda: the establishment and expansion plans of Ma’ale Adummim and their human rights ramifications. Jerusalem: Bimkom, 2009. Available in: http://www.btselem.org/download/200912_maale_adummim_eng.pdf. Access in: 20 Nov. 2014.

BISHARA, Marwan. Palestina/Israel: a paz ou o apartheid. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003.

BOBBIO, Norberto. Direita e esquerda: razões e significados de uma distinção política. 3. ed. São Paulo: Editora Unesp, 2011.

BOUSSOIS, Sébastien. Israël confronté a son passé. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008.

CATTAN, Henry. A Palestina e o direito internacional: o aspecto legal do conflito Árabe-Israelense. Curitiba: Grafipar, [197-].

CIVIC COALITION FOR DEFENDING PALESTINIANS RIGHTS IN JERUSALEM. Aggressive urbanism: urban planning and the displacement of palestinians within and from occupied east Jerusalem. Jerusalem, 2009. Available in: http://civiccoalitionjerusalem.org/system/files/documents/aggressive_urbanism.pdf. Access in: 13 June 2015.

COCONI, Luciana. Apartheid contra el pueblo palestino. Madrid: Ediciones del Oriente y del Mediterráneo, 2010.

CORNEVIN, Marianne. Apartheid, poder e falsificação histórica. Lisboa: Edições 70, 1982.

D’AMOURS, Jillian K. New Israeli laws threaten Palestinian civil society. Chicago: The eletronic intifada, [S.l.], 06 Dic. 2010. Available in: http://electronicintifada.net/content/new-israeli-laws-threaten-palestinian-civil-society/9123#.TttzmFbPyql. Access in: 14 Nov. 2015.

D’AMOURS, Jillian K. Israel criminalizes commemoration of the Nakba. The Eletronic Intifada, Chicago, 29 mar. 2011. Available in: http://zochrot.org/en/content/israel-criminalizes-commemoration-nakba. Access in: 14 Nov. 2015.

ENRIQUEZ, Eugène. Matar sem remorso: reflexões sobre os assassinatos coletivos. História - questões & debates: os lugares da violência, Curitiba: Editora da UFPR, v. 18, n. 35, p. 11-41, jul./dez. 2001.

EPSTEIN, Yitzhak. The hidden question. [S.l.], Aug. 1907. Available in: http://qumsiyeh.org/yitzhakepstein/. Access in: 31 Oct. 2014.

FALK, Richard. Achieving human rights. New York: Routledge, 2009.

FANON, Frantz. Los condenados de la tierra. Cidade do México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1963.

FIELDHOUSE, David K. Western Imperialism in the Middle East: 1914-1958. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

GORDON, Neve. Israel’s occupation. Los Angeles: University of California Press, Ltd., 2008.

GORNY, Yosef. Zionism and the arabs, 1882-1948: a study of ideology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987

GRESH, Alain. A persistência da visão colonial: Israel-Palestina, um plano de guerra. Le Monde Diplomatique Brasil, Santa de Parnaíba, p. 26-27, 2020.

HAJJAR, Lisa. Courting conflict: the Israeli military court system in the West Bank and Gaza. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

HALPER, Jeff. The 94 percent solution: a matrix of control. Middle East Research and Information Project, [Chicaco], 2000. Available in: http://www.merip.org/mer/mer216/94-percent-solution. Access in: 15June 2015.

HALPER, Jeff. Dismantling the matrix of control. Middle East Research and Information Project, [Chicaco], 2009. Available in: http://www.merip.org/mero/mero091109. Access in: 1 June 2015.

HARVEY, David. O novo imperialismo. 8. ed. São Paulo: Edições Loyola, 2014.

HARVEY, David. Dezessete contradições e o fim do capitalismo. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2016.

HERZL, Theodor. O Estado judeu. São Paulo: Organização sionista unificada do Brasil, 1947.

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. Separate and unequal: Israel’s discriminatory Treatment of palestinians in the occupied Palestinian Territories. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2010. Available in: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/iopt1210webwcover_0.pdf. Access in: 13 June 2014.

KRETZMER, David. The Occupation of justice: the Supreme Court of Israel and the occupied territories. Albany: SUNY Press, 2002.

LAOR, Yitzhak. Las falacias del sionismo progressista. Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra, 2012.

LI, Darryl. The Gaza strips as laboratory: notes in the wake of disengagement. Journal of Palestine Studies, Beirute, v. 35, n. 2, p. 38-55, 2006.

MOSSAWA CENTER. Main findings of the 2009-2010 state budget proposal and the needs of the Arab citizens in Israel. Mossawa Center web site. [S.l.], July de 2009. Available in: http://mossawa.org/files/files/File/Publications/Main%20findings%20of%20the%202009-2010%20State%20Budget%20Proposal%20and%20the%20needs%20of%20Arab%20Citizens%5B1%5D.pdf. Access in: 18 Mar. 2011.

MAOZ, Zeev. Defending the Holy Land: a critical analysis of Israel’s security and foreign policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.

MARTINS, José de Souza. Fronteira: a degradação do outro nos confins do humano. São Paulo: Editora Contexto, 2018.

MASALHA, Nur. Imperial Israel and the palestinians: the politics of expansion. London: Pluto Press, 2000.

MASALHA, Nur. Expulsión de los palestinos: el concepto de “transferencia” en el pensamiento político sionista, 1882-1948. Buenos Aires: Editorial Canaán, 2008.

N’KRUMAH, Kwame. Neocolonialismo: último estágio do imperialismo. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Civilização Brasileira, 1967.

OSMAN, Firoz; DADOO, Suraya. Why Israel?: the anatomy of Zionist apartheid: a South Africa perspective. Johannesburg: Media Review Network; Porcupine Press, 2013.

PAPPE, Ilan. The ethnic cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2008.

PAPPE, Ilan (ed.). Israel and South Africa: the many faces of Apartheid. London: Zed Books, 2015.

PAYES, Shany. Palestinian NGOs in Israel: the politics of civil society. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.

PINSKY, Jaime. Origens do nacionalismo judaico. São Paulo: Editora Hucitec, 1978.

QUIJANO, Aníbal. Colonialidade do poder e classificação social. In: SANTOS, Boaventura de Sousa; MENESES, Maria Paula (org.). Epistemologias do sul. São Paulo: Cortez, 2010. p. 73-118.

RABKIN, Yakov. M. Judeus contra judeus: a história da oposição judaica ao sionismo. Cotia: Acatu, 2009.

ROY, Sara. The Gaza strip: a case of economic de-development. Journal of Palestine Studies, Beirute, v. 17, n. 1, p. 56-58, 1987. Available in: http://www.palestine-studies.org/files/pdf/jps/1069.pdf. Access in: 28 dez. 2011.

SAHD, Fabio B. Oriente Médio desmistificado: terrorismo, fundamentalismo e barbárie. Curitiba: Editora CRV, 2010.

SAHD, Fabio B. As violações impunes de direitos humanos e humanitários dos palestinos vivendo sob a ocupação israelense: possíveis interpretações. 2017. Tese Doutorado em Ciências) – Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017. Disponível em: https://teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/8/8161/tde-21022018-102435/publico/2017_FabioBacilaSahd_VOrig.pdf. Acesso em: 22 abr. 2020.

SAID, Edward W. et al. A profile of the Palestinian people. In: SAID, Edward W.; HITCHENS, Christopher (ed.). Blaming the victims: spurious scholarship and the Palestine Question. London: Verso, 1988. p. 235-296.

SAID, Edward W. Orientalismo: o Oriente como invenção do Ocidente. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007.

SAID, Edward W. The question of Palestine. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

SAID, Edward W. How do you spell Apartheid?: O-S-L-O. Ha’aretz, Jerusalem, 11 Oct. 1998.

SAID, Edward W. After the last sky. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

SAID, Edward W. Cultura e resistência: entrevistas do intelectual palestino a David Barsamian. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2006.

SAND, Shlomo. Comment le peuple juif fut inventé. Paris: Fayard, 2008.

SANTOS, Boaventura de Sousa. Para além do pensamento abissal: das linhas globais a uma ecologia de saberes. In: SANTOS, Boaventura de Sousa; MENESES, Maria Paula (orgs.). Epistemologias do Sul. São Paulo: Cortez, 2010. p. 23-72.

SANTOS, Boaventura de Sousa; MENESES, Maria Paula (org.). Epistemologias do sul. São Paulo: Cortez, 2010.

SHLAIM, Avi. A muralha de ferro: Israel e o mundo árabe. Rio de Janeiro: Fissus, 2004.

SHEHADEH, Raja; KUTTAB, Jonathan (ed.). The West Bank and the rule of the law. Genebra: The International Commission of Jurists: Law in the Service of Man: 1980.

SHELEF, Nadav G. Evolving nationalism: homeland, identity and religion in Israel, 1925-2005. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.

SUZMAN, Mark. Ethnic nationalism and state power: the rise of Irish nationalism, Afrikaner nationalism and zionism. New York: St. Martin’s press inc., 1999.

UNITED NATIONS. General assembly: resolution 2851 (XXVI): report of the special committee to investigate israeli practices affecting the human rights of the population of the occupied territories. [S.l.]: UN, 20 Dic. 1971. Available in: https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/DC39D8D9B0DADCF6852560DE006B70B5. Access in: 22 Apr. 2020.

UNITED NATIONS. Human rights council: implementation of general assembly resolution 60/251 of 15 march 2006 entitled “human rights council”: report of the special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the palestinian territories occupied since 1967, John Dugard. [S.l.]: UN, 29 Jan. 2007. Available in: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G07/105/44/PDF/G0710544.pdf?OpenElement. Access in: 22 Apr. 2020.

UNITED NATIONS. Human rights council: human rights situation in palestine and other occupied arab territories: report of the special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the palestinian territories occupied since 1967, John Dugard. [S.l.]: UN, 21 Jan. 2008. Available in: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G08/402/29/PDF/G0840229.pdf?OpenElement. Access in: 22 Apr. 2020.

UNITED NATIONS. Human rights council: human rights situation in palestine and other occupied arab territories: report of the special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the palestinian territories occupied since 1967, Richard Falk. [S.l.]: UN, 13 Jan. 2014. Available in: http://blog.unwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/A-HRC-25-67_en-Falkfinalreport_Feb2014.pdf. Access in: 19 Jan. 2014.

UNITED NATIONS. Economic and social commission for Western Asia: Israeli practices towards the palestinian people and the question of Apartheid. Beirute: United Nations, 2017. Available in: https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/201703_UN_ESCWA-israeli-practices-palestinian-people-apartheid-occupation-english.pdf. Access in: 27 Mar. 2017.

WEIL, Josef (org.). O Oriente Médio na perspectiva marxista. São Paulo: Editora Sundermann, 2007.

WEIZMAN, Eyal. Hollow Land: Israel’s architecture of occupation. London: Verso, 2007.

YIFTACHEL, Oren. Ethnocracy: land and identity politics in Israel/Palestine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

ZERTAL, Idith; ELDAR, Akiva. Lords of the land: the war over Israel’s settlements in the occupied territories, 1967-2007. New York: Nation Books, 2007.

ZERTAL, Idith. La nación y la muerte. la Shoá en el discurso y la política de Israel. Buenos Aires: Del Nuevo Extremo, 2010.

ZUREIK, Elia. Israel's colonial project in Palestine. Brutal Pursuit. London: Routledge, 2016.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-04-30

Como Citar

SAHD, Fábio Bacila. Conflito, discriminação e segregação na Palestina ocupada: etnocracia como síntese teórica possível. Revista Tempo e Argumento, Florianópolis, v. 13, n. 32, p. e0107, 2021. DOI: 10.5965/2175180313322021e0107. Disponível em: https://revistas.udesc.br/index.php/tempo/article/view/2175180313322021e0107. Acesso em: 21 maio. 2024.