Concepções em mudança do pensamento histórico no ensino da história: um estudo de caso australiano

Robert J. Parkes, Debra Donnelly

Resumo


Muitos países vivenciaram conflitos em torno do conteúdo do seu currículo de história e tiveram debates sobre a importância relativa de habilidades (pensamento histórico) versus conteúdo (conhecimento histórico). A Austrália não é uma exceção. Este artigo busca contribuir para as discussões sobre a importância do pensamento histórico no ensino da História explorando as concepções em mudança de pensamento histórico nos currículos de história de New South Wales (NSW) (o mais populoso estado da Austrália, que evoluiu de uma antiga colônia britânica e tem uma ininterrupta tradição de ensino de história no ensino médio, e um curso adicional ao ensino obrigatório, que é único no país). Recentemente, a história se tornou um tema obrigatório em todas as escolas australianas, desde o primeiro fundamental até o último ano da escola obrigatória (F-10), pela primeira vez desde a federalização dos estados australianos (1901), quando se determinava constitucionalmente que o currículo era uma responsabilidade do Estado. Este artigo mapeia as formas cambiantes e a importância relativa do pensamento histórico como um resultado explícito do ensino de história nos currículos de história de NSW, desde o seu surgimento no currículo de história eletivo da década de 1970 até a explicitação nas ementas de NSW para o Currículo “nacional” obrigatório australiano. Ele também explora a natureza e o significado do curso adicional “sênior” de história posterior à escola obrigatória de NSW, uma opção para os alunos de história no ano final não obrigatório de escolarização. Este curso adicional incorpora em grande medida o estudo da historiografia, exigindo dos alunos que apliquem suas intuições meta-históricas numa investigação historiográfica original, ancorando teoria histórica complexa numa experiência de ser historiador. Defendemos que esta atitude de incorporar a historiografia no currículo expande a noção do que constitui o pensamento histórico no ensino de história. Assim, concluímos com a reflexão sobre o que esses diferentes modos de conceituar o pensamento histórico significam para a função social e educacional da história, e quais implicações eles sugerem para o ensino da história.

Palavras-chave: Ensino da História; Pensamento Histórico; Austrália.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5965/2175180306112014137

Contato:
Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina - UDESC
Centro de Ciências Humanas e da Educação - FAED
Programa de Pós-Graduação em História - PPGH
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