Modelo conceitual para a compreensão da ansiedade na performance musical

Ioulia Papageorgi, Susan Hallam, Graham Welch, (Tradução de Fernanda T. Zanon)


A maior parte das pesquisas realizadas sobre Ansiedade na Performance Musical (APM) tem considerado sua relação com as características internas do intérprete musical, a condição de preparação para a performance e fatores relativos ao ambiente no momento da execução. Os métodos para o seu alívio geralmente têm natureza clínica. Poucas pesquisas situam-se ao redor de um modelo conceitual explícito e abrangente. Este artigo propõe um quadro teórico que retrata a ansiedade no contexto da performance musical como um processo que tem uma dimensão clara de tempo (pré-, durante e pós-performance). O modelo ilustra os prováveis processos que ocorrem a partir do momento em que um artista concorda em participar de uma performance específica e explica como eles podem dar origem tanto a formas mal adaptativas quanto adaptativas da ansiedade na performance. Os efeitos potenciais a longo prazo sobre o artista também são discutidos. Uma descrição detalhada do modelo e as teorias por trás do seu desenvolvimento são seguidas por uma consideração das implicações do modelo e da sua potencial utilidade para pesquisa e educação.


ansiedade; música - execução; educação musical;

Texto completo:



ABEL, J. L.; LARKIN, K. T. Anticipation of performance among musicians: physiological arousal, confidence, and state anxiety. Psychology of Music, v.18, n.2, p.171- 182, 1990.

ABRAMS, D.; MANSTEAD, A. S. A test of theories of social facilitation using a musical task. British Journal of Social Psychology, v.20, n.4, p.271-278, 1981.

ATKINSON, J. W. An introduction to motivation. Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand, 1964.

ATKINSON, J. W.; FEATHER, N. T. A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley, 1966.

BANDURA, A. Self-efficacy: Towards a unifying theory of behavior’s therapy. Psychological Review, v.84, n.2, p.191-215, 1977.

BANDURA, A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, v.37, n.2, p. 122-147, 1982.

BANDURA, A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997.

BIGSS, J. Approaches to learning and to essay writing. In: SCHMECK, R. R. (Ed.), Learning strategies and learning styles. New York: Plenum Press, p.185-228, 1988.

BIGSS, J. Learning strategies, student motivation patterns, and subjectively perceived success. In: KIRBY, J. R. (Ed.), Cognitive strategies and educational performance. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, p. 111-134, 1984.

BROTONS, M. Effects of performing conditions on music performance anxiety and performance quality. Journal of Music Therapy, v.31, n.1, p. 63-81, 1994.

COX, W.; J.; KENARDY, J. Performance anxiety, social phobia and setting effects in instrumental music students. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, v. 7, n. 1, p. 49-60, 1993.

DEWS, C. L. B.; WILLIAMS, M. S. Student musicians’ personality styles, stresses, and coping patterns. Psychology of Music, v. 17, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1989.

DWECK, C. S. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 2000.

ENTWISTLE, N. Motivational factors in students’ approaches to learning. In: SCHMECK, R. R. (Ed.), Learning strategies and learning styles. New York: Plenum Press, p. 21-51, 1988.

FISHBEIN, M. et al. Medical problems among ISCOM musicians: Overview of a national survey. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, v. 3, n.1, p. 1-8, 1988.

FREDRIKSON, M.; GUNNARSSON, R. Psychology of stage fright: The effects of public performance on neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and subjective reactions. Biological Psychology, v. 33, n. 1, p. 51-61, 1992.

GABRIELSSON, A. The performance of music. In: Deutsch, D. (Ed.), The psychology of music. San Diego: Academic Press, p. 501-602, 1999.

GATES, A. G.; MONTALBO, P. J. The effect of low-dose beta blockade on performance anxiety in singers. Journal of Voice, v. 1, n. 1, p. 105-108, 1987.

GOOD, T. L.; BROPHY, J. E. Educational psychology. New York: Longman, 1991.

GRAHAM, S. H.; WEINER, B. Some educational implications of sympathy and anger from an attributional perspective. Unpublished paper. Los Angeles, University of California, LA, 1983.

GUSTAFSON, E; RAWSON, D. Rambfeber hos strakmusiker (Stage fright in string players). Unpublished Masters Thesis. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, 1983.

HALLAM, S. Approaches to learning and performance of expert and novice musicians. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of London, 1992.

HALLAM, S. Instrumental teaching: A practical guide to better teaching and learning. Oxford: Heinemann, 1998.

HALLAM, S. Musical motivation: Towards a model of synthesising the research. Music Education Research, v. 4, n. 2, p. 225-244, 2002.

HALLAM, S. Supporting students in learning to perform. In: HANKEN, I. M.; NIELSEN, S.G. ; NERLAND, M. (Eds.), Research in and for higher music education. Festschrift for Harald Jørgensen. Oslo: Norges musikkhøgskole, p. 23–44, 2003.

HAMANN, D. L. An assessment of anxiety in instrumental and vocal performances. Journal of Research in Music Education, v. 30, n. 2, p. 77-90, 1982.

HAMANN, D. L.; SOBAJE, M. Anxiety and the college musician: A study of performance conditions and subject variables. Psychology of Music, v. 11, n. 1, p. 37-50, 1983.

HANLEY, M. A. Creative visualisation: Antidote of performance anxiety? American Music Teacher, v. 33, n. 6, p. 28-29, 1984.

HARDY, L.; PARFITT, G. A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. British Journal of Psychology, v. 82, n. 2, p. 163-178, 1991.

HONG, Y.; CHIU, C.; DWECK, C.S. Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 77, n. 3, p. 588- 599, 1999.

KEMP, A. E. The personality structure of the musician. I. Identifying a profile of traits for the performer. Psychology of Music, v. 9, n. 1, p. 3-14, 1981.

KEMP, A. E. The musical temperament: Psychology and personality of musicians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

KENNY, D. A systematic review of treatments for music performance anxiety. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, v. 18, n. 3, p. 183-208, 2005.

KENNY, D.; OSBORNE, M. S. Music performance anxiety: New insights from young musicians. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, v. 2, n. 2-3, p. 103-112, 2006.

KLEINKNECHT, R. A. Mastering anxiety: The nature and treatment of anxious conditions. New York: Plenum Press, 1991.

LAZARUS, R. S. Emotion and adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

LAZARUS, R. S.; FOLKMAN, S. Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer, 1984.

LEBLANC, ALBERT. A theory of music performance anxiety. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, v. 5, n. 4, p. 60-68, 1994.

LEBLANC, A. et al. Effect of audience on music performance anxiety. Journal of Research in Music Education, v. 45, n. 3, p. 480-496, 1997.

LEGLAR, M. P. Measurement of indicators of anxiety levels under varying conditions of musical performance. Dissertations Abstracts International, 39, 5201A-5202A, 1978.

LEHMANN, A. C. The acquisition of expertise in music: Efficiency of deliberate practice as a moderating variable in accounting for sub-expert performance. In: DELIÈGE, I; SLOBODA, J. (Eds.), Perception and cognition of music. Hove: Psychology Press, p. 161-187, 1997.

LEHRER, P. M. A review of the approaches to the management of tension and stage fright in music performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, v. 35, n. 3, p.143- 153, 1987.

LEHRER, P. M. Performance anxiety and how to control it: A psychologist’s perspective. In: GRINDEA, C. (Ed.), Tensions in the performance of music. London: Kahn & Averill, p. 134-152, 1995.

LEHRER, P. M.; GOLDMAN, N. S.; STROMMEN, E. F. A principal components assessment of performance anxiety among musicians. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, v. 5, n. 1, p. 12-18, 1990.

LEVITT, E. E. The psychology of anxiety. London: Staples Press, 1968.

MAGNUSSON, D.; STATTIN, H. Situation-outcome contingencies: A conceptual and empirical analysis of threatening situations. Report from the Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, 1981.

MARKUS, H.; RUVOLO, A. Possible selves: Personalised representations of goals. In: PERVIN, L. A. (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p. 211-241, 1989.

MCCOMBS, B.L. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: A phenomenological view. In: ZIMMERMAN, B. J.; SCHUNK, D. H. (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p. 67-123, 2001.

MCCORMICK, J.; MCPHERSON, G. E. The role of self-efficacy in a musical performance examination: An exploratory structural equation analysis. Psychology of Music, v. 31, n. 1, p. 37-51, 2003.

MCPHERSON, G.E.; MCCORMICK, J. Motivational and self-regulated learning components of musical practice. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, n. 141, p. 98-102, 1999.

MCPHERSON, G. E.; MCCORMICK, J. Self-efficacy and music performance. Psychology of Music, v. 34, n. 3, p. 322-336, 2006.

MEYER, W. U. Indirect communications about perceived ability estimates. Journal of Educational Psychology, v. 74, n. 6, p. 888-897, 1982.

MEYER, W. U. Prozesse der Selbstbeurteilung: Das Konzept von den eigenen Begabung. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, v. 15, n. 1, p. 1-25, 1983.

MOR, al. Perfectionism, control and components of performance anxiety in professional artists. Cognitive Therapy and Research, v. 19, n. 2, p. 207-225, 1995.

O’NEILL, S. A. The self-identity of young musicians. In: MACDONALD, R.; HARGREAVES, D.; MIELL, D. (Eds.), Musical Identities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79-96, 2002.

O’NEILL, S. A.; MCPHERSON, G. E. Motivation. In: PARNCUTT, R.; MCPHERSON, G. E. (Eds.), The science and psychology of music performance: Creative strategies for teaching and learning. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 31-46, 2002.

PAPAGEORGI, I. Understanding performance anxiety in the adolescent musician. Tese de Doutorado. Institute of Education, University of London, 2007.

PARASURAMAN, S.; PUROHIT, Y. S. Distress and boredom among orchestral musicians: The two faces of stress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, v. 5, n. 1, p. 74-83, 2000.

PEKRUN, R. An expectancy-value model of anxiety. In: H. M. VAN DER PLOEG, H. M.; SCHWARZER, R.; SPIELBERGER, C. D. (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, v.3, p. 53-72, 1984.

PEKRUN, R. Classroom climate and test anxiety: Developmental validity of expectancyvalue theory of anxiety. In: H. M. VAN DER PLOEG, H. M.; SCHWARZER, R.; SPIELBERGER, C. D. (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, v. 4, p. 147-158, 1985.

PHILLIPS, E. M. Acting as an insecure occupation: The flipside of stardom. In:WILSON, G. D. (Ed.), Psychology and performing arts. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, p. 133-142, 1991.

PRUETT, K. D. Psychological aspects of the development of exceptional young performers and prodigies. In: SATALOFF, R. T.; BRANDFONBRENER, A. G.; LEDERMAN, R. J. (Eds.), Textbook of performing arts medicine. New York: Raven Press, p. 337-349, 1991.

RAE, G.; MCCAMBRIDGE, K. Correlates of performance anxiety in practical music exams. Psychology of Music, v. 32, n. 4, p. 432-439, 2004.

RECINIELLO, S. Towards an understanding of the performing artist. In: WILSON, G. D. (Ed.), Psychology and performing arts. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1991.

REUBART, D. Anxiety and musical performance: On playing the piano from memory. New York: Da Capo Press, 1985.

RYAN, C. Gender differences in children’s experience of musical performance anxiety, v. 32, n. 1, p. 89-103, 2004.

SALMON, P. G.; MEYER, R. G. Notes from the Green Room: Coping with stress and anxiety in musical performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

SALMON, P.; SCHRODT, R.; WRIGHT, J. A temporal gradient of anxiety in a stressful performance context. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, v. 4, n. 2, p. 77-80, 1989.

SCHULZ, W. Analysis of a symphony orchestra. In: Piperek, M. (Ed.), Stress and music: Medical, psychological, sociological, and legal strain factors in a symphony orchestra musicians profession. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumuller, p. 35-56, 1981.

SCHWARZER, R.; JERUSALEM, M. Advances in anxiety theory: A cognitive process approach. In: HAGTVET, K. A.; JOHNSEN, B. T. (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research. The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, v. 7, p. 2-17, 1992.

SPIELBERGER, al. Examination stress and test anxiety. In: SPIELBERGER, C. D.; SARASON, I. G. (Eds.), Stress and anxiety. Hemisphere, v.5, p. 167-191, 1978.

STEPTOE, A. The relationship between tension and the quality of musical performance. Journal of the International Society for the Study of Tension in Performance, v. 1, n. 1, p. 12- 22, 1983.

STEPTOE, A. Stress, coping and stage fright in professional musicians. Psychology of Music, v. 17, n. 1, p. 3-11, 1989.

STEPTOE, A. Negative emotions in music making: The problem of performance anxiety. In: JUSLIN, P. N.; SLOBODA, J. A. (Eds.), Music and emotion: Theory and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 291-307, 2001.

SWEENEY, G. A.; HORAN, J. J. Separate and combined effects of cue-controlled relaxation and cognitive restructuring in the treatment of musical performance anxiety. Journal of Counselling Psychology, v. 29, n. 5, p. 486-497, 1982.

TOBACYK, J. J.; DOWNS, A. Personal construct threat and irrational beliefs as cognitive predictors of increases in musical performance anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 779-782, 1986.

VALENTINE, E. The fear of performance. In: Rink, J. (Ed.), Musical performance: A guide to understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 168-182, 2002.

WEINER, B. An attributional theory of achievement motivation. Psychological Review, v. 92, n. 4, p. 548-573, 1985.

WELCH, G. F. A schema theory of how children learn to sing in tune. Psychology of Music, v. 13, n. 1, p. 3-18, 1985.

WILLIAMON, A. (Ed.). Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

WILSON, G. D. Abnormalities in motivation. In: EYSENCK, H. J. (Ed.), Handbook of abnormal psychology. London: Pitman Medical, p. 362-389, 1973.

WILSON, G. D. Performance anxiety. In: HARGREAVES, D. J.; NORTH, A. C. (Eds.), The social psychology of music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 229-245, 1997.

WILSON, G. D. Psychology for performing artists (2nd ed.). London: Whurr, 2002.

WILSON, G.D.; ROLAND, D. Performance anxiety. In: PARNCUTT, R.; MCPHERSON, G. E. (Eds.), The science and psychology of music performance: Creative strategies for teaching and learning. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 47-61, 2002.

YERKES, R. M.; DODSON, J. D. The relation of strengths of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. Journal of Comparative Neurological Psychology, v. 18, n. 5, p. 459-482, 1908.



  • Não há apontamentos.

Indexadores, diretórios e bases de dados



Licença Creative Commons

Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.